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x��X[o�6~7��p�"�E�"��(�K�[email protected]�1������)�&����w�[,�C�@��������y�,�4k����yӤ��L�n߮��դSS� W���p��~ �«N�f8��,����p0�āsH����}pЂB������>�j���0�w����pp���^ꏄ��+���"��{�����my�����#���p����,��JY]6*��m�p�6�O�^��I&�%I�d0�� For example, in chromosomal mutations, an entire part of the chromosome (or the whole chromosome itself) can be duplicated, deleted, or moved to a different location.

Chromosome Mutations Definitions A mutation is any cha nge in the DNA. %����

�H �a�� h����F`h�\0Bb%CZN5 %gq ��h9ͦ��� &�N����n9�bF�h�r8�B��Q��g�%�1��e&��� �3����!��sX*I�[email protected]���Ȋ�AA�f4��4Z=&�%Fp��WZ��l���@e2��n�Lu�]^���(�L����BN1�^fsSm endobj <>/Metadata 157 0 R/ViewerPreferences 158 0 R>> (a) A nonbanded metaphase grouping of chromosomes… 1 0 obj

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Chromosomal mutations … Chromosomal mutations are detected by comparing the banding pattern of chromosomes. stream Chromosome Mutations - gross changes in chromosomes. %PDF-1.2

Point mutations and frameshift mutations are a smaller-scale type of mutation that happens when single nucleotides are changed, inserted, or deleted. 954 0 obj <> endobj

Describe some common chromosomal mutations: inversions, deletions, duplications, fusions, fissions, and translocations.

Mutations which alter the chromosome structure, size or gene arrangement are chromosomal mutations. 967 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[954 25]/Info 953 0 R/Length 72/Prev 365562/Root 955 0 R/Size 979/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream �$#!7?�(�Q��_$��=p'��5_!�;�(��O���*�&�x} 0�����CvB)X�

11 0 obj THE OCCURRENCE OF MUTATIONS In the nucleus of each eukaryote cell exists the genetic material packaged in chromosomes …


All mutations … /Length 12 0 R

These are grouped into two broad classes based open whether they alter the structure or number of chromosomes. 0 Chromosomal mutations are widely called as chromosomal aberrations. endstream endobj 955 0 obj <>/Metadata 82 0 R/Outlines 150 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 948 0 R/StructTreeRoot 169 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 956 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 957 0 obj <>stream Mutations range from a change in a single nucleotide pair up to a change is vast regions of a chromosome. endstream endobj startxref s9చ� h�bbd``b`�Ӂ��`U��$f�X� V��b���S n?�xt�����d #����� x� Figure 15.7 Human Karyotypes—Banded and Nonbanded. chromosomes. endobj

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The mutation concept as the ultimate source of evolution was first proposed in detail by Hugo DeVries3 and has been extensively researched ever since. h��Vko�6�+�������y�� PC�5�|Pl��ȁ���߹��#g��� �qL��}���H�G!E�I��P֡UBy�VZ#��X�P!҈:E��F%� �Z�Ĕ|Iqz��Uq��x(&gx9wS�u�x]��լ��F�z���8x11�RDb*��R�Y�������i�*�n/[���n>�(�M�j��iqrt4)7�����63��RG���^\�"�P�T�-cq�,atq�j��d��� Š)B������^~z�Z�˦|�co���F&��G�x�ή����u���.�JHl��~�P>o��R~���]��ߺ����16E��%�1nf�y�,��9l6����^oڣ�r�@���tno�n�vn[�w�ۊ������j3�r�o��X-�����A��Au� k4A�W‚����x�1� ���+\\��;/h+���k�wRD�i� �;�1�l���cr���"�B~�ґ;F>��P����%x�y�;�bn=l���p��[[email protected]}%]� C6 lB���|�s��p <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>>

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%���� A chromosome mutation is a change in the structure or arrangement of the chrom osomes w Numerical Changes { Euploidy -- … In some karyotypes, the X chromosomes are placed to the right of the C group. endobj 2 0 obj >> <> stream Q�y>�-���U!�Y+e\�;�s>0���t�ԡJS~�A���QR�Nσ���'{� r�)y�_�4���҃?b�`�L�����i1 Q���_�q�[email protected]{\M�Y�J�����AE‡tϊ`���3�AN]�d=J��>��h

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