Initiative and actions were the aims to be sought. And the Comintern doctrine that there was little or no difference between social democracy and fascism might seem “ultra-left.” But historically ultraleftism had generally been the product of newly radicalized activists who lacked the patience to persuade and win allies—what Lenin called an “infantile disorder.” Stalin’s “leftism” had very different roots. (vi) Bureaucracy is concerned with strategic points in every administrative set-up; there are certain positions or posts, which might be called as strategic policies to maintain the standard of administration. Therefore, the nation had no alternative but to leave the things to time.

It is the bureaucrats, appointed on a long-term basis, provide continuity in the governance of the nation. 8. (i) A Government is run by general processes – (a) The process of politics, which consists of the activities of elected representatives of the people and (b) the process of administration to assist politically elected ministers, which consists of the activities of permanent bureaucrats or civil servants. The shape to bureaucracy was given during the regimes of Warren Hastings, Lord Cornwallis and Lord Wellasly. Bureaucracy is also called as the fourth branch of Government. (ii) Bureaucrats are professionally recruited and trained in various disciplines – functional, technical and specialist as well as managerial and generalist such as police force to maintain law and order, a diplomatic service for external affairs, technical services for Public Works Department or defence, Railways and Customs etc.

No Mutual Understanding – Personal feelings, views, needs and opinions are not given any importance or consideration under bureaucracy. Compartmentalisation of Activities – Jobs are divided into watertight categories which restricts people from performing tasks that they are capable of performing. This results from the reliability of the formal relations that exist between various officials and employees throughout the organisation. Multiple layers of hierarchical positions are a characteristic of bureaucracy, where bottom rungs are supervised by higher rungs with greater powers. One of the first people in modern times to think seriously of bureaucracy was a German sociologist, Max Weber (1864-1920). Bureaucracy has been assigned a key role in the process of nation building, socio-economic development, policy formulation and policy implementation. Technical Competence – Qualification is prescribed for each and every job/position. It aimed to enforce due process of law, collect revenue, to maintain efficiency in all basic matters – crime, land revenue, records of rights and economy. The procedure is to be taken into account while performing the work. If the revolution could not feed its citizens and defeat its military opponents, then any other aspirations were futile. Max weber (1864-1920) had also defined Bureaucracy an institutional method for applying general rules to specific cases thereby making the actions of Government fair and predictable. 1. There is a framed set of rules that employees must adhere to. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Its members were bestowed with all kinds of authority, favours, concessions and privileges. It derives its power from rationality. Veto power apart, 5 permanent members of UNSC, other western countries take lion’s share in UN jobs. Now, bureaucracy string to adjust their role in post reforms scenario. 2. Corporations are allowed to enter into contracts, sue and be sued, own assets, remit federal and state taxes, and borrow money from financial institutions.

The office a person holds is more important that the person himself. The bureaucracy also distorts the true nature of the political situation, exaggerating their achievements and hiding problems, making it harder to analyse the exact state of the process of change. The bureaucracy, particularly the ICS, came to be known as the “Steel-frame of the whole structure”. Trotsky was further shocked by Hitler’s accession to power—largely as a result of the German communists’ failure to build a united front to stop him. To further your education on economics, we suggest the following CFI resources will be helpful: Become a certified Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA)®FMVA® CertificationJoin 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari by completing CFI’s online financial modeling classes and training program!

A special training is provided to impart knowledge of rules and procedures.

7. But those events, in the twenty-three years after the October Revolution, were unprecedented and unpredictable.

“Their vigilance, integrity and honesty saved the administration from falling victim to wrong practices. 8. 1. Leon Trotsky was one of the great original Marxist thinkers of the twentieth century.

Bureaucratic approach helps the managers to manage complex organizations of all types more efficiently. Politicians, come for a short period and go. By Iftikhar Gilani As global leaders start addressing the UN General Assembly from Tuesday to mark the 75th year of the world body, experts call for overhauling its bureaucracy to make it … Privacy Policy3. Although bureaucracy in its most extreme form has become associated with the problems of red tape and layers of rules, the ideal bureaucracy that Weber envisioned has many advantages for managers. Higher civil services of Government of India represented one of the finest services in the world. Those, who were still thinking in terms of their previous status and authority, took premature retirement. 5. Rights and Duties – Each and every employee can understand his rights and the duties to be performed. The Mauryan empire was an efficient and highly organized autocracy with a standing army and civil service.That bureaucracy and its operation were the model for the Artha-shastra (“The Science of Material Gain”), a work of political economy similar in tone and scope to Niccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince.. Record-Keeping – Every decision and action is taken only after writing in number of documents. In government or large organizations, bureaucracy is indispensable in administering rules and regulations.

Division of labour and specialisation also lead to efficiency in terms of goal achievement and exercise of control. It is one of the oldest and most wonderful institutions, the British has bequeathed to India. The various modes are hierarchy, professionalization, specializationAbsolute AdvantageIn economics, absolute advantage refers to the capacity of any economic agent, either an individual or a group, to produce a larger quantity of a product than its competitors.

Every superior tries to increase the number of his subordinates as if this number is considered a symbol of power and prestige. Disadvantages and Dysfunctions. Division of Work: There is division of work on basis of specialization of jobs in bureaucratic organizations. Formalities were the minimum. Management, Organisational Structure, Bureaucracy. The reason is that bureaucracy provides a scope to employees to shink responsibility for failures. Delay and Red Tapism – Bureaucratic procedures involve inordinate delays and frustration in the performance of tasks. Empire Building – People in a bureaucracy tend to use their positions and resources to perpetuate self-interests or the interests of their sub-units. Detailed rules and procedures are prescribed in writing for carrying out all administrative functions. There is a resistance to change on the part of employees also. To run the administration of a country in an effective way, a band of capable officers efficient, prompt, just and sympathetic belonging to different disciplines of civil services are required. This change had brought about many new responsi­bilities pertaining to economic development and social welfare on the shoulders of its civil services. In fact Stalinism would produce a new form of centrally directed economy, which would survive for over half a century and transform Russia into a major industrial economy. Bickerings over respective jurisdictions of members may hamper co-operation and coordination between various sub-units of the organisation. There was a perfect tuning between the leadership and administration. The adhocracy is typically found in dynamic organisations engaged in highly technical fields where the environment is complex and dynamic and where it is essential to foster innovation. The image, it acquired immediately after the independence, was that of effective bureaucracy under the able, sincere and visionary leadership of Patel, Nehru and Pant. The leaders of that time could not appreciate the value of efficient and impartial civil services and did precious little to check deteriorating standards of the service. Content Guidelines 2. Bureaucratic structure is intended to have the following benefits: There is a systematic division of duties, rights and powers. Perform financial forecasting, reporting, and operational metrics tracking, analyze financial data, create financial models. The civil service was not only a career for them, but something which they had built-up, united and adminis­tered. It does not faster in them a sense of belongingness. The wider, the spread of recruitment net, the larger would be the talent base and richer would be the service.”.

This ensures the correct matching of the right worker with the right job. Time and again Trotsky was surprised by the way in which Stalinism evolved; but a revolutionary who is incapable of being surprised cannot learn from events. 6.

The examples of professional bureaucracies are hospitals, firms of accountants and consultancy firms.

The only means, of co-ordination available to the organisation is standardisation of skills—the professionally trained employees. It has a long historical background and is a product of centuries. According to Max Weber bureaucracy deals with a design in which tasks, authority, and reporting relationships are formally defined. Besides, it specifies smooth relationships among employees.

(v) Bureaucracy is meant for exclusive and specialist nature of work of the Government. In particular, Trotsky located the origins of bureaucracy in scarcity—“when there is little goods, the purchasers are compelled to stand in line.

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